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研究:性格內向者"假裝"外向會更快樂

來源:chinadaily 編輯:Kelly ?  VIP免費外教試聽課 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

If you are an introvert, force yourself to be an extravert. You'll be happier.

如果你性格內向,強迫自己變得外向,你會更快樂。
That's the suggestion of the first-ever study asking people to act like extraverts for a prolonged period. For one week, the 123 participants were asked to -- in some cases -- push the boundaries of their willingness to engage, by acting as extraverts. For another week, the same group was asked to act like introverts.
上述建議來自一項前所未有的研究,該研究要求人們在較長時間內像外向者那樣行事。研究人員要求123名參與者在一周內,超越自我意愿參加活動,像外向者那樣為人處世。另一周里,研究人員要求這群人像內向者那樣行事。
The benefits of extraversion have been reported before, including those of "forced extraversion," but usually only for brief intervals. In one study, train-riders were asked to talk to strangers; a control group was directed to remain silent. The talkers reported a more positive experience.
性格外向(包括“強制外向性”)的好處過去曾有報道,但這些研究通常只持續較短時間。在一項研究中,研究人員要求一些火車乘客與陌生人交談。還有一個對照實驗組則被要求保持沉默。交談者的體驗報告更加積極。
UC Riverside researcher Sonja Lyubomirsky wanted to extend the faux extraversion to see if it would result in better well-being.
加州大學里弗賽德分校的研究人員索尼婭·柳博米爾斯基希望延長這種虛假的外向性,以驗證這種行為是否會帶來更多幸福感。
"The findings suggest that changing one's social behavior is a realizable goal for many people, and that behaving in an extraverted way improves well-being," said Lyubomirsky, a UCR psychologist and co-author of the study, published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
柳博米爾斯基說:“研究發現表明,對很多人來說,改變社會行為是可以實現的目標,外向的行為方式會增進幸福感?!绷┟谞査够且晃恍睦韺W家,也是該研究的合著者之一。這項研究發表在《實驗心理學雜志·綜合》期刊上。

研究:性格內向者"假裝"外向會更快樂.jpg

An initial challenge for this study was the presumption that extraversion -- as a trait rewarded in US culture -- is best. Many of the adjectives associated with extraversion are more flattering than those tied to introversion. Most people would rather be associated with words like "dynamic" than with words like "withdrawn."

“外向” 在美國文化中是一種受到褒獎的個性特征,這也是該研究面臨的最初的挑戰,即假定外向的個性特征是最好的。同外向有關的很多形容詞比同內向有關的形容詞更有表揚意味。相比“沉默寡言”這類詞匯,大部分人更喜歡同“活力四射”等詞語聯系在一起。
So Lyubomirsky's team went for words agreed upon as most neutral. The adjectives for extraversion were "talkative," "assertive," and "spontaneous"; for introversion, "deliberate," "quiet," and "reserved."
因此,柳博米爾斯基的團隊找出了一些含義最為中性的詞匯。同外向相關的形容詞是“健談”,“堅定自信”和“自發”。同內向有關的形容詞是“深思熟慮”,“安靜”和“保守”。
Researchers next told participants -- both the Act Introvert group and the Act Extravert group -- that previous research found each set of behaviors are beneficial for college students.
接下來,研究人員告訴“表現內向”組和“表現外向”組的參與者說,此前研究發現,每種行為方式對大學生都是有益的。
Finally, the participants were told to go forth, and to be as talkative, assertive, and spontaneous as they could stand. Later, the same group was told to be deliberate, quiet, and reserved, or vice versa. Three times a week, participants were reminded of the behavioral change via emails.
最后,研究人員讓參與者盡可能變得“健談”、“堅定自信”和“自發”。之后,研究人員又讓同一組參與者保持“深思熟慮”,“安靜”和“保守”,反之亦然。研究人員每周三次通過電子郵件提醒參與者改變行為方式。
According to all measures of well-being, participants reported greater well-being after the extraversion week, and decreases in well-being after the introversion week. Interestingly, faux extraverts reported no discomfort or ill effects.
研究人員使用多種方式衡量了參與者的幸福感,參與者在外向行為周后表示感覺更幸福,而在內向行為周后表示幸福感減少。有趣的是,假裝外向的人沒有報告不適或不良反應。
"It showed that a manipulation to increase extraverted behavior substantially improved well-being," Lyubomirsky said. "Manipulating personality-relevant behavior over as long as a week may be easier than previously thought, and the effects can be surprisingly powerful."
柳博米爾斯基說:“結果表明,人為增加外向行為可以極大提升幸福感。人為操縱個性相關行為長達一周或許比過去料想的更容易,而結果可能非常給力,令人意外?!?/div>
The researchers suggest that future experiments addressing this question may switch up some variables. The participants were college students, generally more malleable in terms of changing habits. Also, Lyubomirsky said, effects of "faking" extroversion could surface after a longer study period.
研究人員表示,未來有關這一問題的實驗可能會改變一些變量。之前的參與者是大學生,在改變習慣方面來講可塑性較強。柳博米爾斯基還說,“假裝”外向的后果在更長的研究時期后可能會顯現。

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psychologist [sai'kɔlədʒist]

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n. 心理學家

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control [kən'trəul]

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n. 克制,控制,管制,操作裝置
vt. 控制

 
challenge ['tʃælindʒ]

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n. 挑戰
v. 向 ... 挑戰

 
manipulation [mə.nipju'leiʃən]

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n. 操縱,控制,竄改

 
assertive [ə'sə:tiv]

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adj. 斷定的,過分自信的

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beneficial [.beni'fiʃəl]

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adj. 有益的,有利的

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acting ['æktiŋ]

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n. 演戲,行為,假裝 adj. 代理的,臨時的,供演出

 
trait [treit]

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flattering ['flætəriŋ]

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adj. 奉承的;諂媚的

 
dynamic [dai'næmik]

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adj. 動態的,動力的,有活力的
n. 動力

 
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